Cyberbullying and Online Harassment | NSW

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Cyberbullying and Online Harassment in New South Wales: Laws, Cases, Penalties, and Possible Defenses

In today’s interconnected society, cyberbullying and online harassment have become alarming issues. Often perpetrated through social media, emails, or messaging apps, these behaviours can have severe consequences for both victims and perpetrators. In New South Wales (NSW), legislation has been enacted to address these problems, including through criminal sanctions. This article will explore the legal landscape surrounding cyberbullying and online harassment in NSW, offering examples of cases, detailing penalties, and explaining possible defences.

Cyberbullying and Online Harassment: What Is the Law in NSW?

Cyberbullying and online harassment are generally covered under several provisions in NSW legislation. This includes the Crimes Act 1900 and the Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007.


Cyberbullying refers to the use of digital technology to harass, intimidate, or cause harm to others. Online harassment may include stalking, threats, or persistent unwanted contact.

Examples of Cases of online harassment

  1. Social Media Harassment: A prominent case involved an individual repeatedly posting abusive comments on a victim’s social media profile, leading to criminal charges.
  2. Online Stalking: In another case, a perpetrator was convicted for persistently stalking and threatening a victim through email and messaging apps.


  • Imprisonment: Up to 3 years for cyberbullying or five years for online stalking.
  • Fines: These may also be imposed, depending on the severity and nature of the offence.
  • Restraining Orders: Courts may issue restraining orders to protect victims.

Possible Defenses

  • Freedom of Expression: While limited, some cases may involve carefully balancing harassment and free speech rights.
  • Lack of Intent: Proving that the accused did not intend to harass or threaten.
  • False Accusation: Evidence that the allegations are false or exaggerated.


Cyberbullying and online harassment are complex issues with social and legal challenges. In NSW, the legal framework is robust, aiming to protect victims while balancing rights such as freedom of expression. Understanding these laws, penalties, and possible defences is essential for legal practitioners, educators, parents, and individuals navigating the digital world.